Modern Druidry is, in essence a recreation or re-construction of an Earth Based spiritual tradition.

The realms of the Sea, Land and Sky are those the Druids explore and there is the idea that the world of the spirit is not a word of transcendence but one of immanence.


Geomancy, literally 'earth divination'. Part of the Druid path is the path of the Oracle, the Seer or the Wise.

Listening to and being present in nature is a path to inner wisdom and discovery.

A space where Being and Becoming join.


The Bardic tradition is one of poetry, storytelling and song through which traditions are maintained, magical lessons are taught and wisdom is earned.

Traditionally it seems that all Druids were Bards..

And it was the Bard who learned to open themselves to the spirit of Inspiration - The Awen


Where did they go … ?

Where did they go … ?


As part of visit to North Wales, we decided to head up and onto the Isle of Angelsey –Ynys Môn in Welsh.

This place has long been associated with the Druids and in 60-61AD the Roman General Paulinus gave orders for the Isle to be raided and the power base of the Druids to be destroyed.

Standing on the Angelsey side of the Menai Straights it was easy to let my mind slip back to the records left by Tacitus who recorded the events….

“[Paulinus] prepared to attack the island of Mona which had a powerful population and was a refuge for fugitives. He built flat-bottomed vessels to cope with the shallows, and uncertain depths of the sea. Thus the infantry crossed, while the cavalry followed by fording, or, where the water was deep, swam by the side of their horses. On the shore stood the opposing army with its dense array of armed warriors, while between the ranks dashed women, in black attire like the Furies, with hair dishevelled, waving brands. All around, the Druids, lifting up their hands to heaven, and pouring forth dreadful imprecations, scared our soldiers by the unfamiliar sight, so that, as if their limbs were paralysed, they stood motionless, and exposed to wounds. 

Perhaps I had a romanticised image in my mind based on this ‘report’. The rebellious peoples of Wales and England, coming to make a brave last stand against the colonising invaders… but history is rarely that simple.

Paulinus’ troops crossed the Menai Straights using amphibious craft with the fearless Batavi military units.The Batavi were an ancient Germanic tribe that lived around the modern Dutch Rhine delta in the area that the Romans called Batavia, from the second half of the first century BC to the third century AD. From these people several military units were employed by the Romans that were originally raised among the Batavi.then

When the Roman troops arrived in Angelsey they set about destroying the shrines and the nemetons (sacred groves) of the Druids – the political and spiritual leaders of the rebellious natives.

Soon, however, news of another pesky Briton revolt drew the attention of Paulinus just after his ‘victory’ in Angelsey. It was Boudica’s revolt which caused him to withdraw his army before consolidating his conquest of the Isle.

The island was finally brought into the Roman Empire by Gnaeus Julius Agricola, the Roman governor of Britain, in AD 78. During the Roman occupation, the area was notable for the mining of copper. The foundations of Caer Gybi as well as a fort at Holyhead are Roman, and the present road from Holyhead to Llanfairpwllgwyngyll was originally a Roman road.

Llanfairpwilgwyngyll … there’s a place name to get your lips around!

Better know as Llanfair­pwllgwyngyll­gogery­chwyrn­drobwll­llan­tysilio­gogo­goch 

The long name was contrived in the 1860s to bestow upon the villages station the feature of having the longest name of any railway station in Britain, an early example of a publicity stunt.

The village’s website credits the name to a cobbler from the nearby village of Menai Bridge. According to Sir John Morris-Jones the name was created by a local tailor, whose name he did not confide, letting the secret die with him.The current postmark shows the name Llanfairpwllgwyngyll.

The village was originally known as Llanfair Pwllgwyngyll (“St Mary’s in Hollow of the White Hazel Township”) and a settlement has existed on the site of the village since the Neolithic era (4000–2000 BC), with subsistence agriculture and fishing the most common occupations for much of its early history.

Pwllgwyngyll was the original medieval township where the village is today.

The Isle is littered with numerous Neolithic, Bronze, Iron Age and Roman Sites but the Groves of The Druids have long gone or been ploughed into the ground. Since the Druids belonged to a group of peoples who did not favour the writing of their histories, we are simply left with clues; tantalising ideas and romantic notions of how they would have incorporated Neolithic structures into their rituals and practices. Of them and their sacred places there is little that is concrete and everything that is otherworldly. Stands of Rowan, Oak, Blackthorn and Birch set nearby to sites like Lligwy Burial Chamber excite the imagination and offer tales for the remembrancer.

And if you cross the Menai Straight
Tarvel between those concrete gates
Stare down on Angelsey’s tide drencehd shore
And ask why we are no more.

We rest in Annwn but live in dreams
And speak in cracks between the seams
It is the Bard we will inspire
To keep alive ths sacred fire

And should a mournful Druid pass
Pray raise a drink, raise a glass
For we are not dead nor ever were
We turn from wood to stone to earth….

(See The Battle of Menai)


Published: September 26, 2017

Time Moves On

Time Has Moved On …


Since last I wrote in this space, time has moved on and in many ways nothing has changed but in all ways so much has. This, I suppose, is the mystery of times passing and of the changes it brings.

As I write I can hear a river rush by, I am near the shores of Llyn Tegid, known now as Bala Lake.

I am in Ceridwen’s territory where myth has it that Gwion Bach become re-born as Talisien.

Here, in the shadow of the mountains which grow to become Mt Snowdon, there is a real sense of a connection to the once-long-ago, as if the spirits of those who have travelled this path before speak clearly through the rush and fall of the waters.

Bala Lake 2017


Bala Lake 2017

Today we travelled to Snowdon, stood in the enveloping cloud, and marvelled at the fact that we could see nothing! Thankful that we had decided to travel to the mount by rail, and happy to traverse the mountain under the pull of diesel horses,

It was a strange journey.

Starting in sunlight from a watery autumn sun, and ascending into mist and cloud. Llanberis PassA journey between and through worlds; the scenery a changing, transforming pallet of greens, ambers, greys and whites.

I have always laughed at the fact that my given name Alan, was a mistake.

I was going to be David Jones, but my father, who went to register my name, got a little confused and wrote Alan (he liked the song Donkey Serenade by the singer Alan Jones) – so I became Alan.

But today as we drove through Snowdon National Park, I recalled a moment so long ago; a family holiday and my mother and father laughing about the mix-up about my name and my mother saying “We were going to call you Emrys!”

Emrys, a name with a significance now that was unknown then, I could not have been much older that 8 or 9.

It is perhaps the numinous mists in this area that dissolve the boundaries between time, place and space.

Bardic Reflections

A vanilla-rippled sky sinks below the rocky crags

Faces marked by the hacking of times blunt razor

Clouds fold like ghosts over the hills

Misty, spectral horses transforming. transfiguring, shapeshifting…

Gwion becomes Hare – Ceridwen becomes Hound

Gwion becomes Salmon – Ceridwen becomes Otter

Gwion becomes Wren – Ceridwen becomes Hawk

Gwion becomes Grain – Ceridwen becomes Hen

Ceridwen consumes Grain – Gwion is Second-Born – Taisien

The story is there, told, telling and being re-told in the mist, in the windy spaces of these mountains.




Published: September 24, 2017

The Bride of Spring

The Bride of Spring

Adapted from traditional sources – A story for Imbolg

The Cailleach, the Hag of Winter, held dominion over the land. As Snow Queen she had brought then ice, the winds and the darkness which locked the land into a frozen time-locked desert.

She had imprisoned a maiden named Bride in Her high mountain home not for any other reason other than she knew that Her son Angus-the-Ever-Young (a Sun God) had fallen in love with this fair girl.


The Cailleach knew that if these two ever married, Her own reign would be over: Angus would be the Summer King and Bride would be the Summer Queen.

Angus was lost, smitten and not to be deterred, He set out to find Bride.

Irish weather in February could be treacherous, though, so Angus borrowed 3 days from February’s brother August to give him time in which to search. With some fine weather Angus could ride and search in deep woods and high mountains.

Brides prison was in the summer sun and her imprisonment was a task set by the Crone to collect fresh wood and return them to her winter fires. To make light of her work she sang a song of spring, a song of hope.

Angus searched high and low, and till on the morning of the third stolen day he heard the sound of a song and a poem of hope. Following the heart song he was led to Bride.

Angus was light and bright with the countenance of the rising sun. She immediately loved the shining young man just as he loved Her. The two of them eloped – running through the words, over the mountains and through the streams.

When she was cold Angus wove her a cloak and into each web and weft of that garment he sowed the seeds of summer flowers. When Bride wore the cloak each seed was nurtured and brought forth the sprouts and the leaves of spring.

The furious Cailleach chased after them riding on her shaggy black goat, sending wave after wave of terrible storms in an attempt to slow them down. With every moment that passed her wintery grip was fading and even the storms lost some of their power. Eventually even Cailleach herself was forced to notice the changes in the land and start to feel the warmth within herself.

She was forced to recognise that the rising tide of life was just too powerful. She cast down her staff at that moment turned into a boulder on the side of the mountain.  Here she chose to stay frozen in silica until it was time for the fading light to herald the coming of winter.

Angus returned to Brother August the three days he lent to February, thus ensuring that February would still have the lightest hold on the year. In return he  promised that the light of spring and Brides cloak of seeds would bring a special kind of warmth to this the shortest month of the year.

MoonBear/Alan 31/01/17

Published: February 5, 2017

Druid Astrology

Druid Astrology




Starting Points

zodiacThe truth of the matter is that only mere snippets of archaeological evidence exists about what the Druids believed or practiced. Moreoever the handful of (roughly) contemporary references to ‘what Druids’ did come from a small handful of writings left by the Romans – who let’s face it were unlikely to be unbiassed in their summations.

It can be assumed, and the idea is fairly well supported, that the Celts had a knowledge of the movements of the stars, indeed classical writers do attest to this – Ceaser, Strabo, Pliny all comment on the idea that the Druids had an understanding of  natural phenomenon.


But what they knew and what they taught is very much the topic of speculation and debate.

So what do we know?

In 1897 several pieces of a bronze tablet were discovered in Coligny, France.

These pieces turned out to be peices of a calandar.

In all there were 73 pieces which when reassembled created a five-foot wide, three and a half foot. This tablet displayed a calandar which was both lunar and solar; depicting the phases of the moon and the time of the solar year.

Now known as the Coligny calandar, these tablets seemed to date back to the Second Century and so linked too Gaulish (possibly Druidic) practices.

There is much debate as to how the information on this calandar can be interpreted. For example did the months run from New Moon, Full Moon or First Quarter Moon? Does the calandar-year begin in Autumn or Autumn?

What is clear is that the lunar calandar is made up of 354 or 355 days.

The Coligny calandar contains twelve months which have been translated by researchers such as John and Caitlin Matthews as:-

  • Samonios – Summers end (Oct/Nov)
  • Dumannios – Dark time (Nov/Dec)
  • Riuros – Frost time (Dec/Jan)
  • Anagantios – Indoor time (Jan/Feb)
  • Ogronios – Time of Ice (Feb/Mar)
  • Cutios – Time of Winds (Mar/Apr)
  • Giamonios – Winters end (Apr/May)
  • Simiuisonos – Time of Brightness (May/June)
  • Equos – Horse time (June/July)
  • Elembiuios – Claim time (July/Aug)
  • Edrinios – Arbitration time (Aug/Sept)
  • Cantlos – Song time (Sept/Oct)

To make the calendar work a thirteenth month referred to as Sonnocingos, was included every 2.5 years.

Some superb work by the author Searles O’Dubhain suggests that the Moon names associated with the months could be understood as follows:-

  • an t-Samhain – (samh, “sleep or ghost”) – November
  • an Dubhlachd – (dubh, “black or dark”) – December
  • an Faoilleach – (faol, “wolf”) – January
  • an Gearran – (gearr, “rabbit”) – February
  • am Mart – (mart, “cow”) – March
  • na Giblean – (gibleid, “scraps, bits”) – April
  • an Ceitean – (ceatha, “showers”) – May
  • an t-Ogmhios – (Ogma = og, “young”, mios, “month”) – June
  • an t-Iuchar – (Jupiter = iuchair = eochair, “keys”) – July
  • an Lugnasdai – (Lugh = lug, “lynx”) – August
  • an t-Sultain – (suil, “eye”) – September
  • an Damhair – ( damh, “stag”) – October

Among the Welsh and Irish it seems that the year was divided into a light half and a dark half.

It seems that the day was seen as beginning at sunset, so the year was seen as beginning with the arrival of the darkness, at Calan Gaeaf/Samhain (1st November) whilst the light half of the year started at Calan Haf/Bealtaine (1st May). These festivals have survived into the modern day such as the traditions of Oíche Shamhna (Samhain Eve) among the Irish and Oidhche Shamhna among the Scots even though they exist in modern form as Halloween.

So what about the Tree Calendar?

The much publicised Celtic Tree Calandar, which is built around the Celtic Ogham alphabet, can be considered as a re-invention by the poet Robert Graves who published a very influential book, The White Goddess, in 1948.

Best considered as a work of mythic-poetry, The White Goddess can be seen as a the source of a number of today’s Celtic and Goddess inspired teachings. The book itself lacks any rigour in terms of its research and frequently questionable references. In terms of the Ogham Alphabet, true the marks are Celtic and form part of an alphabet used in monumental inscriptions and, if we can rely on slightly older (but not contemporaneous) sources we can see that each of the Ogham letters did have an association with Trees, Birds, Colours and a number of other natural objects.

In truth there is no historical link between the every Ogham letter and trees, indeed only five or six of the Ogham symbols relate directly to trees!

So what about Celtic Astrology?

Modern writers either relate the months of the moon to trees or animals; these then form the basis of modern presentations of Celtic or Drudic Astrology.

For example:-

  • Month                                                           Animal               Tree
  • December 24 – January 20                            Stag/Deer           Birch
  • January 21 – February 17                              Cat                      Rowan
  • February 18 – March 17                                Snake                 Ash
  • March 18 – April 14                                        Fox                     Alder
  • April 15 – May 12                                           Cow/Bull            Willow
  • May 13 – June 9                                            Seahorse             Hawthorn
  • June 10 – July 7                                             Wren                   Oak
  • July 8 – August 4                                           Horse                  Holly
  • August 5 – September 1                                Salmon                 Hazel
  • September 2 – September 29                       Swan                    Vine
  • September 30 – October 27                          Butterfly               Ivy
  • October 28 – November 24                           Wolf/Hound        Reed
  • November 25 – December 23                       Falcon/Hawk       Elder

Modern Druids who consider certain animal totems to represent the ‘directions’ and ‘hence’ the seasons would recognise:-

The Hawk in the East, representing Spring

The Stag in the South, representing Summer

The Salmon in the West, representing Autumn

The Bear in the North, representing Winter

So there seems to be some disagreement between these two lists.

But there are some other issues. As every astrologer knows it’s not just the birth month that is important, but the way the heavenly bodies traverse the skies in relation to the place, time and date of birth. Hence whilst each of these modern intepretations offers monthly ‘zodiac-like’ qualities they are far removed from what might be considered as ‘astrology’.

In order to re-construct or re-imagine any kind of Druid Astrological system we would need to understand what planets, constallations the Celts identifed.


It seems that we have little direct evidence for any system the Druids/Celts may or may not have used, it is clear that modern mythic-poets and recreationsists have pieced together a zodiac of sorts.

The Tree Calendar, in terms of authenticity, also raises some questions.

The point, however is, that since most neo-Druidry is recreated, reformed or   re-invented, any system that has personal relevance and meaning is viable and valuable. Symbols and symbolic systems can and do evolve and indeed need to do so in order to have a relevance.

In the words of the Reformed Druids of Gaia –

We are “doing it the way the ancients did, making it up as we go along!”



Published: August 10, 2016

The Awen and The Drum

The Awen and The Drum



The Awen has been adopted as the symbol for modern Druidry…

It is based on an original design by the 18th-19th century Druid revivalist, Iolo Morganwg. It represents three rays of light emanating from three points of light and symbolises, among other things, the triple nature of the Druid path, incorporating the paths of Bard, Ovate and Druid.

The Awen is a not genuine symbol of ancient Druidry, but is associated with several modern groups.

The word Awen in the Gaelic language means means “inspiration,” or “essence,” and refers to to poetic inspiration (traditional) or spiritual illumination (modern). The three parts of the Awen symbol represent the harmony of opposites- the left and right rays symbolizing female and male energy; the center bar their harmonious balance (somewhat akin to the Taoist yin-yang symbol).

The RIGHT Hand Ray can be associated with the RED DRAGON or Nitre in Alchemical Terms.

It is Power, Fire and Air – Spirit Above

The LEFT Hand Ray can be associated with the WHITE DRAGON or Salt in Alchemical Terms

It is knowledge, Water and Earth – Spirit Below

The MIDDLE Ray is the Ray of Balance

The Staff of Merlin.. Spirit Within

From a meditation : 7/8/16

T|he Drum is the White Dragon – The Beater is the Red

Together they produce the rhythm of life, the pulse of creation.

The Drum and The Beater exist as ‘entities’ and potential within their own right, but the Drum only plays the vibration of life through the application of desire – the intention to create a beat.

The Drum reverberates at each encounter with The Beater and if the beat is out of step with the echoes of the initial rhythm there is chaos and discord and the intended rhythm falters.

The properties of the Drum and The Beater effect the nature of the beat and the Drummer creates the rhythm and is created by it…

The energy given to the Drum by the Beater derives from a source within the Drummer.

They co-exist and co-create in accord with intention.





Published: August 7, 2016

A Riddle?

A Riddle?




Taken from my Journal following a journey…

And the Bear said “there is but one path which can be derived from the Hawks three ideas”

And the Hawk said “the three ideas will lead to the six actions of the Stag”

The Salmon offered nine insights which would inform the one path and so the cycle begins again.

And the Bear said “What is the path?”

And the Hawn questioned the three ideas.

The Stag asked “What are the six actions?”

And the Salmon questioned the transformation held within the ideas, which led to the actions which derived the insights all of which formed the path the Bear could follow.

  • One Path
  • Three Ideas
  • Six Actions
  • Nine Insights


Published: May 12, 2016

Cu Chulainn and Emer

Cu Chulainn and Emer

Although this tale was written in the 10th or 11th century CE, it is safe to assume that this tale – like so many others – contains a much older nucleus.

What is interesting about this story, which comes from the Ulster Cycle of mythic stories, is that it refers to the four fire festivals around which the wheel of the year is constructed.

The Tale

The handsomeness of Cu Chulainn caused much consternation amid the men, the Princes and The Kings of Ulster – for their looks, no matter how impressive, could not match that of the Hero.

Though their thinking be shallow, it was felt that their women could easily be seduced by Cu Chulainn.

They determined to find a woman to marry him, and tame his roaming eye.

Messengers were sent out far and wide but none could find a woman that Cuchulainn would fall for.

In The court of Forgall the Clever they found the match.

Emer was the noble daughter of the Chieftain named Forgall who had a reputation for slyness.

Cu Chulainn was invited to visit Forgall’s court where he saw Emer conversing with her attendants.

For his eye she had the six gifts which he sought in a wife; the gift of beauty, the gift of a good voice, the gift of sweet speech, the gift of needlework, the gift of wisdom and the gift of chastity.

Forgall was not warm to the idea, so decided to set a challenge for Cu Chulainn.

Scathach-Celtic-Goddess-45763728762He would need to prove himself a worth warrior and so was required to train with the warrior women, Scathact of Scotland. He thought that Cu Chulainn might fail the training, but if not he would be away for some time so could ensure his court was protected upon the warriors return.

Actually Emer herself was not averse to Cu Chulainn’s advances, but wishing to test him set conditions of her own.

Cu Chulainn had spoken to Emer in code words and phrases; complicated riddles and puns that made no sense to the other listeners.

While others looked at him aghast (that was not how he thought one should talk to a beautiful woman), Emer smiled at him, and replied in the same vein of seeming nonsense, incomprehensible to all the others. For example They went when Cu Chulainn peeked down the top of her shirt and said “I see a fine country there with a sweet resting place.”

Emer replied, “No man shall rest there unless he can leap over three walls, kill three groups of nine men with one blow, leaving one man in each group alive, and slay one hundred men at each of the fords between here and Emain Macha.”

“Fair is the plain, the plain of the noble yoke,” said Cu Chulainn.

“No one comes to this plain,” said she, “who does not go out in safety from Samhain to Oimell, and from Oimell to Beltaine, and again from Beltaine to Bron Trogain.”

“Everything you have commanded, so it will be done by me,” said Cu Chulainn.

And the offer you have made me, it is accepted, it is taken, it is granted,” said Emer.

“‘I shall go out from Samhain to Oimell,’ he said.

“That is, that I shall fight without harm to myself from Samhain, the end of summer, to Oimell, the beginning of spring; and from the beginning of spring to Beltaine, and from that to Bron Trogain. For Oi, in the language of poetry, is a name for sheep, and Oimell is the time when the sheep come out and are milked, and Suain is a gentle sound, and it is at Samhain that gentle voices sound; and Beltaine is a favouring fire; for it is at that time the Druids used to make fires with spells and to drive the cattle between them against the plagues every year. And Bron Trogain, that is the beginning of autumn, for it is then the earth is in labour, that is, the earth under fruit, Bron Trogain, the trouble of the earth.”

ulster_cycle__3_copySo Cu Chulainn travelled to Scotland to train with the Warrior Woman.

Scathact taught Cu Chulainn the art of war – and he excelled.

Now Scathact had a rival, Aoife who some say was her twin sister.

They had long held a grievance and so it was that during Cu Chulainn’s training Aoife made her attacks on Scathact’s home on the Isle of Skye.

Cu Chulainn was not ready for battle so Scathact attempted to drug him, but he was too strong and so revived from the sleeping potion.

He asked her “What things does Aoife think most of in all the world?”

“Her two horses and her chariot and her chariot-driver,” said Scathach.

Cu Chulainn and Aoife met in battle and he was very near defeat –  his spear, his sword and strength almost broke, he decide to call out that Aoife’s horses and chariot were near to falling over the cliff.

Distracted for a moment, Cu Chulainn over powered her and offered to spare her life on two conditions.

The first that she cease all hostilities against Scathact and that she bear him a child – she agreed.

All the time Cu Chulainn was away, Forgall the Wily had made preparations.

At first he tried to marry Emer to the great king in Munster, Lugaid, son of Ros.

He had travelled northward with twelve chariot chiefs to look for a wife among the daughters of the men of Mac Rossa, but they had all been promised before. When Forgall Manach heard this he told Lugaid that the best of the maidens of Ireland, both as to form and behaviour and handiwork, was in his house unwed.

Lugaid said he was well pleased to hear that, and Forgall promised him his daughter Emer in marriage.

And to the twelve chariot chiefs that were with him, he promised twelve daughters of twelve lords of land in Bregia, and Lugaid went back with him to his dun for the wedding.

But when Emer was brought to Lugaid to sit by his side, she laid one of her hands on each side of his face, and she said on the truth of her good name and of her life, that it was Cu Chulain she loved, although her father was against him, and that no one that was an honourable man should force her to be his wife.

Then Lugaid did not dare take her, for he was in dread of Cuchulain, and so he returned home again.

Forgall had fortified his stronghold with three walls, and gathered his best warriors in the courtyard. The strongest were in three groups of nine, each one commanded by one of his own sons.

Cu Chulainn was not daunted by these preparations: he simply leaped over the wall, and struck down each of the three groups of men with one blow of his sword, leaving Emer’s brothers unharmed.

When Forgall saw this, he was sure Cu Chulainn would kill him for trying to keep his daughter away from him. He climbed over the walls to try and escape, but he slipped and fell to his death.

Cu Chulainn picked up Emer, and her weight in gold, and leaped back over the three walls as easily as he had arrived.

cuchulainn3He and Emer were pursued by Forgall the Wily’s followers, and at each ford between her house and Emain Macha, Cu Chulainn had to stop his chariot and hold them off.

At each ford, he killed a hundred men, fulfilling the last of the conditions she had set for him.

Emer grieved for her father, but she told Cu Chulainn she did not hold him responsible, as he had not actually killed her father: his death had been an accident, and his own fault.

So the two of them were married, and proved to be well-suited.

They were each other’s equal it wit and wisdom, and though Cu Chulainn was often away with battles and feats of arms, and often spent time with other women, Emer was without jealousy, because she knew he would always return to her.


Published: July 28, 2015

Newfre, Gwyar and Calas

Newfre, Gwyar and Calas


In the spirit of re-creation and basing ideas on The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg it is interesting to talk of ‘three aspects’ of creation.

If you come from a Wiccan and Western Magickal background then the idea of the (Platonic) elements of Earth, Air, Fire and Water will be very familiar to you.
These same elements entered into discussions of Alchemy, which came from the Islamic Magical tradition, and was popularised in the Middle Ages when translations of Islamic texts into Latin formed part of the revival in magical traditions.
Druid Revival lore contains a system of its own, a set of three elements that first appears in Iolo Morganwg’s writings. Whether it’s an invention of Iolo’s or a surviving scrap of some older teaching is anyone’s guess, but the three elements have been part of Druid Revival teaching ever since his time.

Their names are nwyfre, gwyar, and calas.

Nwyfre (pronounced “NOOiv-ruh”) is said to be an old Welsh term meaning “sky” or “heaven.” As an element, nwyfre is the source of life and consciousness, and modern Druids often refer to it simply as the life force. Its image in nature is blue sky.

Gwyar (pronounced “GOO-yar”) literally means “blood” in old Welsh, but it’s more general meaning is “flow” or “fluidity.” As an element, gwyar is the source of change, motion, growth, and decay. Its image in nature is running water.

Calas (pronounced “CAH-lass”) comes from the same root as caled, Welsh for “hard,” and means “solidity.” As an element, calas is the source of form, differentiation, manifestation, and stability. Its image in nature is stone.
According to Druid philosophy, everything in the universe is made up of these three elements in some combination, with one element dominant.

All are forms of primal substance, which is called manred.

Manred has no characteristics of its own, except for the power to condense into calas, flow into gwyar or expand into nwyfre.

The Barddas Iolo’s book, which introduces the three elements also discusses the more common system of five elements:

  • nwyfre becomes spirit,
  • gwyar becomes water,
  • calas becomes earth, with air and fire added to the set to round it out.

Many modern Druid orders use this set of five preferentially, and in some areas (such as the healing arts) it has important advantages.

We have also looked at this five element system in the first part of our training.

You can access The Bardass on line here:


Published: June 24, 2015

The Holly King and The Oak King

The Holly King and The Oak King


Getting confused ….

During a broadcast on Penwith Radio (26th December) I got myself into a right mythological tangle.

I was talking about Wren Day, the 26th December, when wrens were hunted by wren boys, sacrificed (killed) and then paraded around the town.

The Wren and the Oak are symbolically related and so in my muddled state I mixed up the Holly and the Oak king suggesting that it was the Holly King who defeated the Oak King at the Winter Solstice – a slip of the tongue, but one which resolved me to double check my thinking. A resolve further enhanced because listening to the show was Priestess of Kernow, Sue, who contacted the show and gently suggested that I had got it the wrong way round.

A quick studio reference to Wikipedia revealed…

“The Holly King is a speculative archetype of modern studies of folklore and mythology which has been popularized in some Neopagan religions. In his book The White Goddess, the author Robert Graves proposed that the mythological figure of the Holly King represents one half of the year, while the other is personified by his counterpart and adversary the Oak King: the two battle endlessly as the seasons turn. At Midsummer the Oak King is at the height of his strength, while the Holly King is at his weakest. The Holly King begins to regain his power, and at the Autumn Equinox, the tables finally turn in the Holly King’s favor; his strength peaks at Midwinter.”

In a Druidic sense the Light Half of the Year is Beltain to Samhain and the dark half is Samhain to Beltain.

If the Solstices represent the turning point of the year then one would assume that the respective kings are at their height at this time.

Summer Solstice – The Oak King

Winter Solstice – The Holly King

Moerover if this is the case the the equinoxes represent periods of ‘balance’ between the two Kings.

For my own clarity I chose to compile the following notes, I hope you find them interesting too….

The battle between the Holly King and the Oak King. for a number of Pagan traditions, represents a central theme surrounding the solstices – the concept of light and dark; of birth, death, and rebirth.

The Holly King and the Oak King are two sacrificial Gods who, in the manner of such deities, are two aspects of the same being. The Holly King represents the waning year, and battles the Oak King at Midsummer (probably once at Bealtaine) for rulership. Likewise, the Oak King is the God of the waxing year, and battles with the Holly King at Yule (probably once at Samhain) for the same honour.

Actually there are two themes which collide at the Solstices, two distinct concepts which merged together to create the modern-day Wheel of the Year : a solar concept and the natural-fertility concept.

The sun based solar theme is one we can observe on a daily basis as we watch the sun rise and set, and view the dominance of the Sun God during the solstices and equinoxes.

It is a theme in which the Sun dies and is reborn at the Winter Solstice (Yule), begins his maturity at the Spring Equinox (Ostara) when he impregnates the Earth Goddess, peaks in a blaze of glory at the Summer Solstice (Litha), and begins to wane in his power around the Fall Equinox (Mabon).

The natural-fertility concept is a little more complex, involving two God-figures: the God of the Waxing Year and the God of the Waning Year.

The Waxing God is also known as the Oak King, and the Waning God as the Holly King. Although rivals, they are also considered to be twins – each other’s “other self,” the light and dark aspects of the male deity.

(source : Deaf Pagan Crossroads)

The Solar twins compete with each other for the favour of the Earth Goddess; each serves as her child, consort and lover during his half-year reign – he mates with her, dies in her arms, and is then born of her to carry on the never-ending cycle.

The Spring Equinox (March 21st)  can be seen as celebration of Light and Dark being in harmony.

The Darkness does not conquer Light, nor does the Light conquer Darkness. They are at equilibrium.

We can see this time as one at which the “battle” between the two is at its height;  a time of high energy and of the concept of killing off the old and bringing in the new.

Beltaine (May 1st) : This is the time when the Holly King dies.

Darkness dies in order to give way to Light. The Oak king defeats Holly king!

This is a time of a celebration of procreation; a time of sex, and the life bringing energies associated with it.

Litha or the Summer Solstice (June 23rd) : The Oak king reigns supreme and we celebrate the Oak King or the Bright Lord with bonfires.

Today is the longest day of the year. People in the Northern regions celebrate the light and brightness of summer. As we celebrate the light and creation. It is also the day that the Dark Lord or the Holly King is reborn.

Lammas (Aug 1st) : This is the day, which is opposite to Imbolc a celebration of  the anticipation of the Light. Here we celebrate the first harvest, Perhaps we can see this as the  Holly King’s first victory in the killing off of the crops for the first harvest?

Autumn Equinox (September 23rd) : This is the celebration of Light and Dark being in harmony once again. The Darkness does not conquer Light but the Darkness is getting stronger.

This is a time that the Light does start giving way to the darkness and we start reaping the rewards of a dying Earth. The Oak King’s light is starting to give way. He has trouble hanging on. We give thanks to the Oak King for all he has given us.

Samhain (October 31st) : the Final Harvest or Hallowe’en. This is the Oak King’s death – he is dead until the Winter Solstice! This is a time for darkness to reign. The days get shorter and the nights grow longer. This is at time for us to withdraw and hide in solitude.

Winter Solstice (December 21st) : the rebirth of the Sun or the Oak King. On this day the light is reborn and we celebrate the renewal of the light of the year. This day is still the Holly King’s day as the god of transformation and one who brings us to birth new ways.

Imbolc (Feb 2nd) : This day is the day of the Goddess Brigit, later Christianised into St. Brigit. This a time when Darkness still rules but the light is coming into power and it is celebrated by the celebration of candles, which was Christianised into Candlemas. The darkness or the Holly King still rules but the Oak King or light is growing in power.


The Oak King

greenkingThe Oak King, the Lord of the Greenwood and golden twin of the waxing year, rules from Midwinter to Midsummer. At Midwinter, he goes to battle with his twin, the Holly King, for the favour of the Goddess. He slays the Holly King, who goes to rest in Caer Arianrhod until they do battle again at Midsummer. The Oak King and Holly King are mortal enemies at Midsummer and Midwinter, but they are two sides of a whole. Neither could exist without the other.

The Oak King

Represents: Growth, Expansion

Gods: Jupiter (Roman god of light and sky)

Janus (Roman god of planting, marriage, birth, and other types of beginnings)

Dagda (Irish-Celtic god of the earth)

Frey (Norse fertility god)

Pan (Greek god of fertility, unbridled male sexuality and carnal desire)

Colors: Red, green, yellow, purple

Plant: Oak, mistletoe

Bird: Robin

Associated myths: Robin Hood, King Arthur, Gawain (when he meets the Green Knight), Jesus, Balder, Green Man

The Holly King

440ebcde4b332f0a001e167dbddce681Represents: Withdrawal, lessons, life, rest

Gods: Saturn (Roman agricultural god)

Cronos (Greek god, also known as Father Time)

Father Ice/Grandfather Frost (Russian winter god)

Odin/Wotan (Scandinavian/Teutonic All-Father who rides the sky on an eight-legged horse)

The Tomte (a Norse Land Spirit known for giving gifts to children at this time of year)

Thor (Norse sky god who rides the sky in a chariot drawn by goats)

Color: Black, Red, Green, Gold

Plant: Holly

Bird: Wren

Associated myths: Santa Claus in all his variations, the Green Knight from Arthurian legend, Mordred (who struck down King Arthur), St. John, Corn King, Bran the Blessed.

Samhain is the night when the Old King dies, and the Crone Goddess mourns him greatly during the next six weeks.

Arawn and Hafgan

These two kings of Annwan appear in Welsh mythology as joint kings of the otherworld who are constantly battling.

We are told that their dominions sit side by side.

In the story of Pwyll, Prince of Dyfed we learn that he agrees to switch places with Arawn for a year and a day in order to battle against Hafgan.

Before they exchange places, Arawn gives specific instructions to Pwyll to kill Hafgan with one stroke and no more. In the past when Arawn had battled and had struck Hafgan nearly to his death, Hafgan had begged him to give another stroke, and when Arawn had done so, Hafgan recovered from his injuries and was in good health for battle again the next day.

In one year Pwyll, wearing the guise of Arawn, goes to battle and succeeds in injuring Hafgan nearly to death, breaking through his shield and armor and knocking him to the ground. Just as Arawn had warned, Hafgan pleaded that Pwyll finish the slaughter and kill him thoroughly.

Pwyll refuses to do so, saying, “I may yet repent this, but, whoever else may slay you now, I will not do so.”[

Hafgan then tells his lords he has met his death and will no longer lead them. When Hafgan’s men see their leader is at his end, they realize there is no other king but Arawn, and consent to be the subjects of the new and only king of Annwn.

In later tradition, the role of king of Annwn was largely attributed to the Welsh psychopomp (the spirit or deity who leads newly deceased souls to the otherworld), Gwyn ap Nudd. However, Arawn’s memory is retained in a traditional saying found in an old folktale:

Hir yw’r dydd a hir yw’r nos, a hir yw aros Arawn

“Long is the day and long is the night, and long is the waiting of Arawn

Hafgan as a male or female name means “summer song” HAF gan the story could be a seasonal myth, such as the medieval battle between the Oak King and Holly King, with Arawn as the Holly King.



Published: December 27, 2014

Alban Arthan

Alban Arthan


All Hail  Iolo Morganwg, the 19th-century radical poet and forger who gave us Alban Arthan which is said to translate to  “The Quarter or Light of the Little Bear” and inspired the alternative respelling is Alban Arthuan – ‘light of Arthur’…

Of course we’ve very little idea of what the Druids did or did not believe, but re-creationist tradition sees the four astronomical festivals (The Solstices and Equinoxes) as being ‘high times’ for celebrations. With the amazing solstice alignments at Newgrange, Stonehenge and other neolithic sites there was certainly some tradition relating to this time of (and these times) of year – but all of these pre-date the Druids (as well as the Pyramids).

druidMistletoeRomantic re-creationists  speculate that druids would gather by the oldest mistletoe-clad oak where the Chief Druid would make his way to the mistletoe to be cut whilst below, other Druids would hold open a sheet to catch it, making sure none of it touched the ground. With his golden sickle, and in one chop, the Chief Druid would remove the mistletoe to be caught below. (Thank you Robert Graves)…

Of course the winter solstice may have been immensely important because the people were economically dependent on monitoring the progress of the seasons.

Starvation was common during the first months of the winter and in temperate climates, the midwinter festival was the last feast celebration, before deep winter began.

Isolstice_stones_by_badgersoph-d5dzsgmt is suggested at this time  cattle were slaughtered so they would not have to be fed during the winter, thus it was almost the only time of year when a plentiful supply of fresh meat was available.

The majority of wine and beer made during the year was finally fermented and ready for drinking at this time. The concentration of the observances were not always on the day commencing at midnight or at dawn, but the beginning of the pagan day, which in many cultures fell on the previous eve.

Because the event was seen as the reversal of the Sun’s ebbing presence in the sky, concepts of the birth or rebirth of sun gods became common and, in cultures which used cyclic calendars based on the winter solstice, the “year as reborn” was celebrated with reference to life-death-rebirth deities or “new beginnings” .


For Celtic pagans, Yule is the time when the Sun God Lugh is reborn in human form to rejoin his  beloved wife Eriu

She is described as a hag, who transformed into a beautiful Goddess by the marriage and personifies the land of Ireland in her every feature and character. She becomes known in legend as the “Sovereignty of Ireland”.

In these legends, Lugh takes his bride in the form of the Maiden Goddess, to look out upon their land and in seeing the suffering of their people they grow worried and concerned.

The summer High Holy Day Lughnasadh is celebrated by many traditions as the moment when Lugh, as the Sacred King, sacrifices his own life to save his suffering people.

In doing so his blood is spread across the fields to ensure the fertility of the fields and a bountiful harvest of crop and herd.

As the harvests are brought in, and winters covers the land, the Great Mother (the Mother Goddess) resurrects Lugh from the ground, rising him up into the dark sky and returns him (as the Sun) to the universe.

The effort to raise Lugh into the sky causes Eriu to grow old as she shared her knowledge with the God to teach him all he needed to know to govern over his people once more.

Bestowing her Old Crone wisdom upon Lugh brings the cycle back to the  beginning of the legend.

Yule is also the celebration of the cycle of life through Eriu and all her incarnations as the Maiden, Mother and Crone Goddess.


The Goddess Eriu at Uisneach

Today’s celebrations of the Solstice, Yule and Christmas-tide represent a patch-work of solar traditions, pagan practices, Christian symbolism and neo-Pagan folklore.

Yet beneath it all there is one simple observation…

We are at mid-winter, the shortest day.Before the Winter Solstice there was the promise of coming darkness – after the promise of the light.

The symbolic battle between the Oak and the Holly, the wren and the robin mark the turning points of the year – and by extension the turning points in our own lives and communities. It is this cycle which we celebrate, by whatever name or mythology we choose … it is the perpetual cycle of life death and re-birth of the nature which inspires us in our darkest depths.

So may I wish you all a Cool Yule, a Super Solstice and a Creative Christmas …

May You Never Thirst







Published: December 21, 2014

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